DEXA

What Is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes weakening of the bones in your body. Also called “brittle bone disease,” osteoporosis increases your chance of sustaining a broken bone.
Osteoporosis is a condition that weakens the bones of your skeleton. Bones, like other tissues in your body, are living structures that constantly are changing. New bone is made and old bone is taken away. Osteoporosis develops when the pace of new bone formation cannot keep up with the loss of bone.

Bukovička banja osteoporoza

The most reliable method for early detection of osteoporosis is the DEXA method. DEXA is considered the gold standard for bone density assessment. According to WHO (World Health Organization) guidelines, DEXA is operated in two places, namely the hip and the spinal column. The examination takes less than 10 minutes, the radiation dose is minimal. Shooting is completely painless and requires no preparation.

In which part of the body do fractures most commonly occur?

  • On vertebrae of the thoracic and sacral spine, on the hip and on the wrist
  • Fracture of the vertebral vertebrae causes severe back pain, resulting in deformity-hump and impaired spinal function, as well as decreased body height.
  • Lower fracture of the forearm in 30 {cabf0aed6b2b8e04bc45b5a81547c24c72975da3091c4d583ec6d017ed8e8beb} cases leads to deformities and impaired function of the wrist.
  • Hip fracture is the most serious consequence of osteoporosis. Causes mortality in as many as 15-25 {cabf0aed6b2b8e04bc45b5a81547c24c72975da3091c4d583ec6d017ed8e8beb} patients within one year of fracture, due to complications of this fracture. A third of patients with hip fractures in the field of osteoporosis require long-term home care and usually lead to disability. Only one third of these patients fully regain function, as before the fracture

Who is ill?

People of both sexes and all ages are affected, and menopausal women (end of the menstrual cycle) are particularly at risk. Then the secretion of female sex hormones is reduced and their protective role on the bone ceases. In men, bone loss is slower and smaller, bones are firmer, so they are less likely to have osteoporosis and fractures.

osteoporoza

Clinical picture of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is characterized by the absence of symptoms. It develops gradually and is usually the FIRST sign of this disease. By then, the disease was already advanced and the likelihood of the occurrence of new fractures was five times greater.

Bukovička banja dexa

At what age does osteoporosis occur?

How healthy the bones will be depends primarily on how they are built in childhood and adolescence. Bone mass changes throughout life. Its maximum is reached in 20-30 years. life, with the end of growth and development. The maximum of bone density depends largely on inheritance, about 60 {cabf0aed6b2b8e04bc45b5a81547c24c72975da3091c4d583ec6d017ed8e8beb}, and to a lesser extent on the influence of the environment. Men have significantly higher bone mass than women. Blacks also have a higher bone mass than whites. Since these genetic factors cannot be influenced, it is of utmost importance to pay attention to environmental factors. Therefore, it is necessary for children and young people to carry out a proper diet, diversified, with foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, exercise and be exposed to the sun. This way a healthy and strong bone is formed and the maximum of bone mass is reached, which is a significant stake for old age.

Every other menopausal woman has osteoporosis. Especially the big loss in the first 5-10 years. after menopause. Men are not at risk of osteoporosis in this age group (around 50). After the age of 70, bone loss occurs in individuals of both sexes due to the aging process, lower kidney function and the production of D vitamins and decreased calcium absorption from the digestive system.

ARE YOU AT RISK OF OSTEOPOROSIS?

  • Early surgical or natural menopause (before the age of 45) or a proven deficiency of female sex hormones - estrogen
  • Osteoporosis in the family
  • Low body weight and small build
  • Women who did not give birth
  • Preliminary bone fractures
  • Information on the decrease in body height or on the deformations of the spine
  • A sedentary lifestyle
  • Bad habits (smoking, drinking coffee and alcohol)
  • Improper diet (with reduced calcium intake)
  • Insufficient sun exposure
  • Radiographic findings suggesting a decrease in bone mass
  • Other diseases (obesity, diseases of the glands with internal secretion, diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, diseases of the stomach and intestines due to poor food absorption, impaired renal function and some inflammatory rheumatic diseases)
  • Use of some bone loss drugs (corticosteroids, heparin, epilepsy medicines and chemotherapy)

DIAGNOSIS OF OSTEOPOROSIS

Osteoporosis is a disease that goes without symptoms and is difficult to diagnose based on medical history and clinical picture. Skeletal radiography is also an unreliable method of diagnosis, because when osteoporosis is visible on a standard skeleton x-ray, it is a sign of advanced disease, when bone density is already high and is greater than 30 there is a fracture in the field of osteoporosis, and then additional diagnostics by osteodensitometry is not necessary.

According to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, the diagnosis is made by measuring bone density using the DEXA method (dual energy absorption x-ray absorption).
Measurement of bone mineral density
– BMD by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is considered the gold standard for diagnosing osteoporosis.
All osteodensitometry radiological methods use low doses of x-ray radiation.
Current doses for all osteodensitometry procedures are less than 10 mrem (1 mrem – 10 μSv). For comparison, the natural environment radiation is 300 mrem / year, spine radiography
is 70 mrem, mammography is 45 mrem, and the trip around the world by transcontinental plane is 6 mrem.

Osteoporosis prevention aims to prevent bone loss up to the level of fracture occurrence and includes:

  • CORRECT NUTRITION - APPROPRIATE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D
  • ELIMINATING BAD HABITS
  • ELIMINATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR THE BREAKING OF THE BREAK
  • PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

How is osteoporosis treated?

THERAPY aims to improve bone density beyond the risk of fracture and thus increase the quality of life. There are a number of drugs that affect bone density: drugs from the group of bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, testosterone for men, calcitonin, fluorides and others.

A balanced diet rich in calcium is necessary throughout life to build and maintain strong and healthy bones. The recommended daily intake of calcium is 800 mg daily for children and 1000 mg for adults and more during pregnancy. The best source of calcium is milk and dairy products, the higher the fat milk product, the higher the calcium content. Calcium intake alone is not enough, but vitamin D is also necessary to allow calcium from food to be absorbed and incorporated into the bones. Vitamin D can be ingested through food and created in the body when exposed to the sun. The recommended daily intake of vitamin D in women under 50 is 400 IU and over 50 is 800 IJ daily. Do not smoke, consume alcohol, and large amounts of coffee, as all these factors negatively affect calcium absorption and reduce the body’s ability to form healthy bone.

Prevent falls

need to correct vision, treat high blood pressure, strengthen muscles and improve coordination, use orthopedic aids and protective pads for the hips, as well as adapt the living space). Exercising regularly is fun and also a stronger bone. Bone mass directly depends on the load. Resistance exercises are known to increase bone density and reduce the risk of fracture. Exercises are advised at every age. It is necessary to exercise daily. If you stop exercising, the positive effects will soon disappear.

Exercise recommendations

It starts with easier exercises; the intensity gradually increases; exercise daily; only resistance exercises increase bone density; light walks have no effect on bone mass; Avoid all sports where there is jumping and sudden movements.

Purpose of physical activities

first of all stimulating bone formation, strengthening the muscles of the whole body, especially the muscles of the legs and back, thus improving motor and functional abilities. This reduces the incidence of falls and thus the risk of fractures.